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Orthodontics is the dentistry section specializing in the study of the pathogenesis etiology, diagnostics, treatment and prevention of dento-alveolar anomalies.

It is believed that the orthognathic occlusion is the absolute norm in orthodontics.

Orthognathic occlusion is the position of the lower jaw relative to the superior jaw.

Pass a little test!
-1- Anterior incisors of the superior jaw overlap the lower incisors by 1/3
-2- Each tooth has two antagonists, except wisdom teeth and lower central incisors.
-3- the center line between the central incisors of the lower jaw and the superior jaw coincides.
-4- there are multiple occlusal contacts on all teeth.

-5- the tubercle of the maxillary canine crown is located between the lower canine and first lower premolar.
-6- the mesio-buccal cusp of the first maxillary molar is located in the transverse sulcus of the homonymous lower molar.
-7- the upper buccal cusps of buccal teeth overlap the buccal cusps of the lower buccal teeth.
-8- free way space is 2-3 mm.
-9- the teeth of the upper jaw have the form of ellipse, and the teeth of the lower jaw have the form of parabola.

! If all or almost all items of 9 criteria are answered “yes”, then you do not need to get acquainted with the orthodontist! Congratulations!

! If more than 2 items disagree, you need to make orthopantomography (expanded X-ray of the upper and lower jaws) and arrange consultation visit to orthodontist.

Such relation of the upper and lower jaws ensures the maximum masticatory efficiency. The movement of the condyles of the maxillo-temporal joint relative to eminentia articularis at the opening of mouth is uniform, symmetric.

Accordingly, the larger inconsistency between the clinical situation and abovementioned norm, the greater loss of chewing efficiency, which functionally affects the digestive system and the body as a whole. In addition, the aesthetic aspects of dental arches and face as a whole may also get compromised. In case of apparent disorders of such kind it is necessary to pay timely attention to this pathology and take measures for its elimination.

The following is the physiological occlusion:
- orthognathic occlusion,
- direct occlusion,
- physiological prognathia
- physiological maxillary recession

The patient's age, state of teeth and periodontal tissue is one of the key criteria in the selection of treatment method in orthodontics.

Depending on the clinical situation and the patient's age the following can be applied
- braces (basic 4 type of braces are often used.)
- orthodontic aligners (different hardness, depending on the intended purpose).
- orthodontic plates and apparatus. .

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